Monday, February 18, 2008

Course Schedule (Check often for Updates!)


Mar 4, 6, 7: Introduction to course; Tutoring at Berea Middle—K. Christie/Berea Middle (Mar 4)

Mar 11, 13, 14: Pt. 1—The Teaching Profession (Webb, 1-2)—e-journal due Tues 9am

Mar 18, 20: Pt. 2—Philosophy and Its Impact on the Schools (Webb, 3-4)— e-journal due Tues 9am; Easter Break March 21—No class;

Mar 25, 27, 28: Pt. 3—Historical Foundations of Education (Webb, 5-7)—Evidence of Group Presentation drafting DUE; e-journal due Th 9am

Apr 1, 3, 4: Group Topics (TBD)—Group Presentations 4/3-4/4; April 1: TRHS visit

Apr 8, 10, 11: Education Esme—Codell Discussion 4/8; Mid-term—Apr 11 (Self-evaluation and course evaluation DUE)

Apr 15, 17, 18: Pt. 4—Schooling in a Diverse and Multicultural Society (Webb, 8-10)—e-journal due Tues 9am; April 17: Monaview visit

Apr 22, 24, 25: Pt. 5—Legal and Political Control and Financial Support (Webb, 11-13)—e-journal due Tues 9am

Apr 29, May 1, 2: Pt. 6—Curriculum and Instruction (Webb, 14-15)—e-journal due Tues 9am; May 2: Enoree visit

Be sure to visit the Enoree web site; and look at the Enoree report card.

• April 29: King's letter, public discourse, and the responsibility of teachers
• May 1: Curriculum and Instruction; workshop for final essay
• May 2: Meet @ 9 am, Enoree visit (plan to stay past 9:50 class ending)

May 6, 8, 9: Pt. 7—Projections for the Future (Webb, 16)—e-journal due Tues 9am; First drafts of final essay DUE

May 13, 15, 16: A Tribe Apart—Hersch discussion

May 20: TBD

May 24: FINAL EXAM, 9 am (Final self-evaluation and Portfolio DUE)

EDU 111 Syllabus—Fall 2008

Education 111: Perspectives in American Education (Fall 2010)[1]

Instructor: Dr. P. L. Thomas

Phone: 590-5458 (cell); 294-3386 (office)

Class time: M, W, F: 10:30-11:20

Room: HH 102

Office hours: by appointment, 101F Hipp Hall


Course Website:



Webb, L. D., Metha, A., & Jordan, K. F. (2007). Foundations of American education. 5th ed. Upper Saddle River, NJ: Pearson.

Kozol, J. (2007). Letters to a young teacher. New York: Three Rivers Press.

Hersch, P. (1999). A Tribe apart: A journey into the heart of American adolescence. New York: Ballentine Books.


EDU111 Perspectives on American Education (formerly ED-11)

GER: HB (Empirical Study of Human Behavior)

Introduction to teachers and teaching, the American school in an increasingly diverse society, and the historical, sociological and philosophical foundations of education. Must also enroll in EDU-001 (ED-01). 4 credits.

This course provides an introduction to teachers and teaching, as well as the American school. Its most general purpose is twofold:

• to provide students with a basic understanding of educational issues so that they can make intelligent decisions as citizens;

• to give students an opportunity to assess their own interest (if any) in pursuing a career in education.

Fall 2010 MWF Schedule


Class Focus

W 8/25

Introduction to course; assignments ( )

Monaview Turtoring (Folmer)

“Eleven,” Sandra Cisneros (see handout on CD)

F 8/27

Read/discuss Course Rationale:

Greenville County Schools

M 8/30

“Banking concept”; Freire, Ch .2 Pedagogy of the Oppressed (See Freire.Ch2.pdf on CD)

W 9/1

Pt. 1—The Teaching Profession (Webb, 1-2); e-journal due Wed 10:30 am

F 9/3

Group Topics; Webb pt. 1; Freire discussion continued

M 9/6

Labor Day Holiday

W 9/8

Pt. 2—Philosophy and Its Impact on the Schools (Webb, 3-4); e-journal due Wed 10:30 am

F 9/10

Educational Philosophies and Learning Theories (see handouts on CD)

M 9/13

Learning Styles Inventory (see handout on CD)

W 9/15

Pt. 3—Historical Foundations of Education (Webb, 5-7) ; e-journal due Wed 10:30 am

F 9/17

Thomas Jefferson on Education ( and “The American Scholar,” Ralph Waldo Emerson (

M 9/20

Corridor of Shame (

W 9/22

Pt. 4—Schooling in a Diverse and Multicultural Society (Webb, 8-10); e-journal due Wed 10:30 am

F 9/24

“What These Children Are Like,” Ralph Ellison (

Poverty in education (

M 9/27

Sustainability in education (

W 9/29

Grain of Sand (

F 10/1

Grain of Sand cont.

M 10/4

Group Presentations

W 10/6

Group Presentations

F 10/8


M 10/11

“Return to the Deficit,” Dudley-Marling (

W 10/ 13

MIDTERM; self-evaluation due

F 10/15


M 10/18

Ruby Payne, deficit perspective; “Shifting from Deficit to Generative Practices: Addressing Impoverished and All Students,” Thomas (

W 10/20

Pt. 5—Legal and Political Control and Financial Support (Webb, 11-13); e-journal due Wed 10:30 am

F 10/22

Kozol, Letters; discuss and response due

M 10/25


W 10/27

Pt. 6—Curriculum and Instruction (Webb, 14-15); e-journal due Wed 10:30 am

F 10/29

Pt. 6 discussion continued

M 11/1

W 11/3

Pt. 7—Projections for the Future (Webb, 16); e-journal due Wed 10:30 am

F 11/5

Hard Times at Douglass High (

M 11/8

Hard Times cont. and discuss

W 11/10

F 11/12

M 11/15

Flock of Dodos (

W 11/17

Flock of Dodos

F 11/19

NO CLASS MEETING; workshop peer-conferences

M 11/22

W 11/24


F 11/26


M 11/29

Hersch, Tribe; discuss and response due

W 12/1

Hersch, Tribe

F 12/3

Virtual School Visits Reports

M 12/6

Virtual School Visits Reports


12/15 8:30-11

HH 102

Submit portfolio of all work and grade sheet cover required (see CD)

Please note the following:

Consistent with the Education Department’s conceptual framework, this course will emphasize, at various points, the issues of diversity, technology, school-to-career programs, and the ADEPT assessment system. These items are identified, respectively, as: [D], [T], [STC], and [AD].


The Teacher Education Program at Furman University prepares educators who are scholars and leaders.


Furman University prepares teachers and administrators to be scholars and leaders who use effective pedagogy, reflect critically on the practice of teaching, promote human dignity, and exemplify ethical and democratic principles in their practice. Furman is committed to a program of teacher education that calls for collaborative, interdependent efforts throughout the academic learning community.


During and/or as a result of EDU 111, students will be able to demonstrate the following:

  1. an understanding of the philosophical, historical, and sociological foundations of education*
  2. the ability to articulate their own philosophy of education*
  3. professional competence in written and oral communication*
  4. timeliness and thoroughness in meeting expectations*
  5. the ability to evaluate his/her own interest in teaching as a profession and potential career
  6. the ability to analyze how educational “systems” work
  7. the ability to explain and assess educational reform
  8. an understanding of how schools are financed
  9. the ability to synthesize the legal aspects of education
  10. respect for/understanding of the diverse talents, abilities, perspectives, and contributions of all students**
  11. sensitivity toward community and cultural norms**
  12. the willingness and ability to monitor student learning and adjust practice based on knowledge of individual students**

* These items are part of the “conceptual framework” for Furman’s Teacher Education Program.

** These items, also part of the “conceptual framework,” serve as the primary objectives of the field component of the course.


Due Date

Course Objectives Met


October 17


Final Portfolio

December 16

a, h, i

Reflective Essay

a, b, c, d, e, g, j

Field Feedback

Virtual school visits

School Board

December 3, 5

After visit

c, d, f, j

Tutoring Reflection

c, d, f, g, j, k, l

Book Questions



October 13

November 10

c, d, f, j

Oral /Group Presentations

October 6, 8, 10

c, d, f


Education 111 compresses a lot of material into an abbreviated format. Keeping up with the readings and attending class are crucial for effective participation and a satisfactory grade. Videos and class discussions will be used to reinforce and complement class sessions. In the event of an extended illness, the student should consult with the instructor to determine if withdrawal from the course is necessary.

Missing an exam or turning an assignment in late will be excused only for emergency situations. The instructor will be the final authority in determining if the situation fits the emergency criteria. Also, all forms of academic dishonesty including (but not limited to) cheating on tests, plagiarism, collusion, and falsification of information will call for disciplinary action. If there is any question about what constitutes academic dishonesty, please consult the instructor.

Students with disabilities who need academic accommodations should contact Furman’s Coordinator of Disability Services. Please tell the instructor when and if you do so. And please do this early in the term. All discussions will remain confidential.


Reading assignments (e-journals):

You should have major text reading completed BEFORE the week of the assignment, and you should submit a written e-journal (by email) as a response to that reading due BEFORE Wednesday @ 10:30 AM. Put the text reading in your SUBJECT line (ex. Chapter 1, Webb) and submit your response in the BODY of the email; DO NOT SEND AS AN ATTACHMENT. Many prefer to do text responses in Word; then copy and paste into email body.

Midterm and Final Evaluations:

Midterm and final evaluations will be administered on midterm and final dates; evaluations will cover material addressed in our schedule cumulatively at each point. Evaluations will be created collaboratively between the class and the professor.

Mid-term (Choose ONE):

(1) Take a position on the place of sustainability in the K-12 curriculum. Include the following:

—Provide how you are defining "sustainability," including what elements of it you are considering.

—Establish through which educational philosophy and theory you are taking your position and why.

—Offer some specific examples of how sustainability should be implemented in K-12 education OR specific reasons it should not be included.


(2) Can "sustainability" be taught? Explain carefully why or why not by placing your argument within an educational philosophy and theory.

Book Questions:

You will need to answer the following study questions for the supplemental books (Kozol and Hersch). Your answers should be typed, if possible. They are due on the dates we are scheduled to discuss the books in class:

Questions for Kozol:

a) What are some key suggestions made by Kozol for young teachers?

b) What philosophical and ideological commitments drive Kozol’s discussion?

c) Does this book tell us anything about how our educational system works? If so, what?

d) If you had to give the book a different title, what would it be? Why?

Questions for Hersch:

a) What were some of the reasons Hersch wrote this book? In other words, what kinds of questions about adolescents did she want to answer?

b) Choose one of the adolescents that Hersch focuses on. Describe them and their hopes, fears, and problems.

c) What conclusions does Hersch draw about adolescents in general?

d) What does this book tell us about either how our educational system works or how it should work?

Group Presentations (Rubric included at end of syllabus):

Students in arranged groups will present to the class an educational issue or topic. These presentations should last between 16-20 minutes, and will be graded on concision, thoroughness, and clarity. Topics must be approved by the professor one week before presentation dates.

Essay on Education

Prepare a scholarly, documented essay on the topic you chose for your group presentation. This should be documented in appropriate APA format (See Conventional Language web link on the course blog). You should consult your professor during the drafting of this essay; an initial draft of the final essay must be submitted at least two weeks before the final due date. Essay is due by the end of the course (exam date).

Field Component:

The EDU 111 field experience (EDU 001) is composed of three activities: “virtual” visits of local schools, attending a school board meeting, and tutoring of designated student at a local school (TBD). The purpose of this field experience is to engage students in the public school setting as potential teachers, provide experiences with diverse populations, and to provide insights into the way American educational institutions operate. These experiences are to enrich class discussions, help the student decide if teaching is an appropriate career goal, and to provide the opportunity to demonstrate and practice professional skills and dispositions. Students will be evaluated based upon attendance, participation, and reflections.

Virtual School Observations (12 hrs.):

Choose one school EACH from schools in Greenville County consisting of the following categories: elementary, middle, high, and other (career centers, child development centers, Governor’s school).

Do a virtual visit of each school that must include at least the following:

• Exploration of the most recent three consecutive years of that schools state report card.

• Analysis of the school’s web page. (See “Webculture” guidelines and read “School culture on the Internet” by Daniel Doerger, both provided on the course CD.)

Prepare a one-page handout on each school and make a brief presentation on what you learned (presentations due December 3 and 5).

School Board Observation (2 hrs.):

Please remember that you are required to attend one Greenville County School Board meeting. The School Board meets on the fourth Tuesday of each month at the school district’s administration building. After attending your meeting, you must submit a write-up of what you saw (1-2 pages—longer if necessary), including:

a) when the meeting began and ended

b) a description of the major issues that were discussed

c) what you liked and disliked about the meeting format, the actions of specific Board members [called “Trustees”], and/or speakers from the community

d) whether anybody illustrated respect/understanding of the diverse talents, abilities, perspectives, and contributions of all students

The Greenville School Board will meet at 7:00 p.m. on the fourth Tuesday of each month.

Tutoring Reflection (12 hrs.):

Upon completion, or near the completion, of your tutoring, you are required to submit a reflection of your experiences (about two pages). This summary should include:

a) a detailed description of the student/students you tutored

b) any significant progress you perceived that the student/students made [either academically or otherwise]

c) how you demonstrated understanding of any of the diverse talents, abilities, perspectives, and/or contributions of your student/s (this might involve simply describing the student’s/students’ diversity in this reflection)

d) how you demonstrated sensitivity toward community and cultural norms (this might involve simply describing your student’s/students’ cultural/community norms in this reflection)

e) your willingness to adjust your tutoring based on monitoring of your student’s/students’ progress

You must maintain a tutoring log of times and visits throughout the semester as well and submit that log with your reflection (see end of the syllabus for the log).


If at all possible, we attempt to assign you to the same one or two students throughout the entire term. In some cases this is not possible. For example, a few of you might work with a larger group of students or assist a teacher in an actual classroom. These are equally valid and rewarding tutoring experiences.

When you arrive for a tutoring session, please sign the school’s guest list. Also, don’t forget to have a school official, teacher, or at least a secretary sign your tutoring log; you will be required to turn in your log with your tutoring feedback at the end of the term.

Dress and act professionally at all times. This means abiding by school rules and dressing in a manner that distinguishes you from the students. If in doubt, it is better to be overdressed than underdressed. Please obey any instructions given to you by a teacher or school administrator. This includes wearing any sort of identification that might be required.

Participating in campus activities that are sponsored and supervised by school administrators is fine. Do not, however, meet with your student off campus, including at his/her home. Also, do not offer to provide transportation for your student. Please check with school officials or your Furman professor if any situation arises that you are unsure how to handle. Remember: your role is being a mentor, not a “buddy” for your student.

It is very important that you contact school officials if you cannot make a scheduled tutoring session. The relevant names and phone numbers are listed below. We advise school officials to contact you if a session has to be canceled or rescheduled. Please refer to a previous handout for information concerning days when students will not be in school.

We urge school officials and teachers to be sure that students have some sort of assignment that you can assist them with. Sometimes, though, students show up for their tutoring session with nothing to do. In that case, your imagination and creativity will be necessary. Some constructive assignments might include having the student write a paragraph describing what they did the previous week; identifying objects around the school and using that as a basis for a spelling list; looking through a popular magazine and identifying/defining words the student doesn’t know; having the student try to figure out the main idea of short newspaper article; using a ruler to measure various items, then calculating their size, area, volume, etc. Please contact your Furman professor if your student(s) consistently shows up without anything to do.

Other suggestions:

a) Establish a routine for the tutoring session. This will save time and establish a feeling of consistency.

b) Have patience. Progress can be slow and repetition is necessary, necessary, necessary.

c) Change your approach if one strategy isn’t working.

d) Have your student(s) alternate reading out loud and silently.

e) Let your student(s) work independently for a few minutes; volunteer information only if your student(s) gets stuck, asks for help, or is off task.

f) Draw pictures frequently to explain or illustrate the point you’re trying to make.

g) Try to incorporate references the student will be familiar with. This might require that you discretely find out what the student’s background and circumstances are.

h) Make up games that involve the material.

i) Try to keep antsy children doing something. For example, let a child get up to look at a map or look up a word.

j) Be aware of a student’s feelings and limits. Don’t push too hard. The student might be having a bad day; your talking with him/her will be more important on that day than explaining a certain concept/assignment.

k) Be positive and supply plenty of encouragement. Smile!

Tutoring Log/ EDU 111



Arrival Time

Departure Time

Time Tutored

Signature of School Official

Total Hours:

My signature below is verification that I did complete all the hours of tutoring as stated above in order to fulfill assignments in ED 11.

Student Signature:


Furman University Fall 2010

Dr. Paul Thoma


(LAST) (FIRST or name you’re called by)


Telephone number(s) and best time to reach you:

Email address:

Year in school: Major:

Time(s) during the term when you WOULD BE ABLE to tutor (try to list blocks of 1-2 hours):









Subject(s) you would prefer to tutor:






Group Presentation

Introduction and Purpose

During the semester you will give a 16-20-minute presentation on an educational topic. This assignment give you the opportunity to 1) demonstrate oral communication skills; 2) demonstration presentation skills using technology; and 3) demonstration knowledge of an educational topic. For this assignment, you will work in teams of two. The group will conduct the research, prepare and present to the class. The group will receive a grade based upon their presentation. In addition, each individual in the group will prepare an inquiry essay. Each student will be graded individually on the essay.

The Center for Collaborative Learning and Communication (CCLC)

( is available to help you with effectively communicating with technology. The CCLC is located in the basement of the library and is open in the afternoons and early evenings.

Potential Topics

* Controversial Issues (consult

* Sustainability

* Corporal punishment

* Social promotion of students

* School vouchers

* Prayer and the Ten Commandments in schools

* Teacher accountability

* The digital divide

* Phonics and whole language

* Teacher quality

* Creationism and Evolution

* Desegragation/Affirmative Action

* English as a Second Language/English Only

* Tilte IX

* The arts, music or physical education in the curriculum

* Historical Topics

* Biography of a prominent educator

* Interview a senior citizen about their education

* Describe the educational system of another country


* Testing

Requirement and Expectations

The students will;

* Present a 16-20-minute presentation with each team member participating using multimedia software (Power Point on PC or Mac, must bring your disk to class and print a handout); groups may create a presentation blog instead, as well.

* You need to use at least 6 slides (or equivalent on blog)

* Include a slide/entry with your bibliography (with APA documentation); submit a reference

list in hard copy properly formatted as well

* Prepare a handout for the students

* The presentation should address the following:

Present key controversial issues regarding the topic

Present a summary of all sides of the controversy

Provide historical background

Discuss relevant contemporary cases

Summarize what are the key points that a teacher needs to know


Your oral presentations will be assessed according to a number of criteria. Each criterion will be graded on a 10 point scale. All of the points will be totaled. The course grading scale in the syllabus will be used to assign letter grades.

Group Presentation (100 points)



Content and organization

Comprehension of content


Organization of content in handout

Oral presentation and enthusiasm

Attractiveness and mechanics of presentation slides

Originality of presentation and teaching strategies employed

Posture and eye contact

Adherence to time limit

Collaboration with peers



Rationale: Courses Taught by P. L. Thomas—

Welcome to the Occupation

Paulo Freire (1993) establishes early in his Pedagogy of the Oppressed, “One of the basic elements of the relationship between oppressor and oppressed is prescription. Every prescription represents the imposition of one individual’s choice upon another, transforming the consciousness of the person prescribed to into one that conforms with the prescriber’s consciousness” (pp. 28-29).

The course before you, your course, will be guided by some essential principles, beliefs, and research concerning the nature of learning and teaching along with the commitments I have to the dignity of each person’s humanity and to the sacredness of intellectual freedom within a democracy. The practices and expectations of this course are informed by many educators, writers, and researchers—many of whom are referenced at the end. But the guiding philosophies and theories of this course can be fairly represented as critical pedagogy, critical constructivism, and authentic assessment.

Now that I am in my third decade as a teacher, my classroom practices and expectations for students are all highly purposeful—although most of my practices and expectations are non-traditional and may create the perception that they are “informal.” For you, the student, this will be somewhat disorienting (a valuable state for learning) and some times frustrating. Since I recognize the unusual nature of my classes, I will offer here some clarity and some commitments as the teacher in this course.

In all of my courses, I practice “critical pedagogy.” This educational philosophy asks students to question and identify the balance of power in all situations—an act necessary to raise a your awareness of social justice. I also emphasize “critical constructivist” learning theory. Constructivism challenges students (with the guidance of the teacher) to forge their own understanding of various concepts by formulating and testing hypotheses, and by utilizing inductive, not just deductive, reasoning. A constructivist stance asks students to recognize and build upon their prior knowledge while facing their own assumptions and expectations as an avenue to deeper and more meaningful learning. My practices avoid traditional forms of assessment (selected-response tests), strive to ask students to create authentic representations of their learning, and require revision of that student work.

Some of the primary structures of this course include the following:

• I delay traditional grades on student work to encourage you to focus on learning instead of seeking an “A” and to discourage you from being “finishers” instead of engaged in assignments. At any point in the course, you can receive oral identification of on-going grades if you arrange an individual conference concerning your work. However, this course functions under the expectation that no student work is complete until the last day of the course; therefore, technically all students have no formal grade until the submission of the final portfolio. One of the primary goals of this course is to encourage you to move away from thinking and acting as a student and toward thinking and acting in authentic ways that manifest themselves in the world outside of school.

• I include individual conferences for all students at mid-term (and any time one is requested), based on a self-evaluation, a mid-course evaluation, and an identification of student concerns for the remainder of the course. You will receive a significant amount of oral feedback (“feedback” and “grades” are not the same, and I consider “grades” much less useful than feedback), but much of my feedback comes in the form of probing questions that require you to make informed decisions instead of seeking to fulfill a requirement established by me or some other authority. Your learning experience is not a game of “got you”; thus, you have no reason to distrust the process. I value and support student experimentation, along with the necessity of error and mistakes during those experiments. My classroom is not a place where you need to mask misunderstandings and mistakes. I do not equate learning with a student fulfilling clearly defined performances (see Freire’s commentary on prescription above), but I do equate learning with students creating their own parameters for their work and then presenting their work in sincere and faithful ways.

• I include portfolio assessment in my courses, requiring students to draft work throughout the course, to seek peer and professor feedback through conferences, and to compile at the end all of their assignments in a course with a reflection on that work; my final assessments are weighted for students and guided by expectations for those assignments, but those weights and expectations are tentative and offered for negotiation with each student. Ultimately, the final grade is calculated holistically and based on that cumulative portfolio. All major assignments in this course must be drafted in order to be eligible for a final grade of “A.” The drafting process must include at least two weeks of dedication to the assignment, student-solicited feedback from the professor, and peer feedback. Assignments must be submitted in final forms in the culminating portfolio, but documentation of the drafting process must also be submitted with the final products. Any major assignments that do not fulfill the expectation of drafting will not receive a grade higher than a “B.” Revision is a necessary aspect of completing academic work.

Welcome to the occupation. This is your class, a series of moments of your life—where you make your decisions and act in ways you choose. Freedom and choice, actually, are frightening things because with them come responsibility. We are often unaccustomed to freedom, choice, and responsibility, especially in the years we spend in school. So if you are nervous about being given the freedom to speak and the responsibility for making your own choices, that is to be expected. But I am here to help—not prescribe, not to judge. That too will make you a bit nervous. I am glad to have this opportunity in your life, and I will not take it lightly. I will be honoured if you choose not to take it lightly either.


Ayres, W. (2001). To teach: The journey of a teacher. New York: Teachers College Press.

Brooks, J. G., & Brooks, M. G. (1999). In search of understanding: The case for constructivist classrooms. Alexandria, VA: Association for Supervision and Curriculum Development.

Dewey, J. (1938/1997). Experience and education. New York: Free Press.

Freire, P. (1993). Pedagogy of the oppressed. New York: Continuum.

Gardner, H. (1999). The disciplined mind: What all students should understand. New York: Simon and Schuster.

Gardner, H. (1991). The unschooled mind: How children think and how schools should teach. New York: Basic Books.

Greene, M. (1995). Releasing the imagination: Essays on education, the arts, and social change. San Francisco: Jossey-Bass.

hooks, b. (1999). remembered rapture: the writer at work. New York: Henry Holt and Company.

———. (1994). Teaching to transgress: Education as the practice of freedom. New York: Routledge.

Kincheloe, J. L. (2005a). Critical constructivism primer. New York: Peter Lang.

Kincheloe, J. L. (2005b). Critical pedagogy primer. New York: Peter Lang.

Pinker, S. (1994). The language instinct. New York: Harper Perennial.

———. (1999). Words and rules: The ingredients of language. New York: Basic Books.

Popham, W. J. (2001). The Truth about testing: An educator’s call to action. Alexandria, VA: ASCD.

Popham, W. J. (2003). Test better, teach better: The instructional role of assessment. Alexandria, VA: Association for Supervision and Curriculum Development.

Zemelman, S., Daniels, H., & Hyde, A. (2005). Best Practice: Today’s standards for teaching and learning in America’s schools (3rd ed.). Portsmouth, NH: Heinemann.

[1] Assignments and syllabus for this section of ED 11 are adapted from Scott Henderson in order to keep EDU 111 sections similar.